More Grammatical Terms Related to Greek and English
Some Terms Related to 'Grammar'
Morphology is the study of word formations. As words change form, they convey
different meanings, such as a certain verb tense, person, or noun case. When a
first year Greek student memorizes a noun declension or a verb paradigm, he/she
is learning the morphology of Greek words. A 'morpheme' is considered the
smallest part of a word that conveys meaning, such as the 's' in English that
makes a word plural.
Terms Related to Clauses and Phrases
A clause is a group of words including a subject
and a verb that form a thought. It may stand alone
as a complete sentence (an independent
clause) or may be subordinate to the main sentence and be incapable of
standing alone as a complete sentence (a subordinate clause). If the
clause starts with a subordinating conjunction (such as 'although', 'because',
'if', 'that', etc.), an adverb (such as 'when',
'while', 'where', etc.), or a relative pronoun (such as 'who', 'whose', 'which',
etc.), then it will be a subordinate clause.
An example of a subordinate clause would be, "while he
talked with us". Note that this subordinate clause cannot form an
independent, complete sentence by itself. It needs to be connected to an
independent clause in order to form a complete sentence: "Did not our hearts
burn within us while he talked with us".
When analyzing a sentence, it is important to identify which
words make up an dependent (subordinate) clause and which are a part of the main
sentence (the independent clause).
A phrase is a group of words that does not include both a subject and a
verb, such as a prepositional phrase. It
cannot stand alone as a sentence but is dependent upon the sentence to which it
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that begins with
a relative pronoun (such as 'who', 'whose', or 'which' in English). The relative
clause includes both the relative pronoun and all the words that modify it. In
analyzing a sentence, it is important to identify which words belong to the
Periphrasis (or Periphrastic
The English word 'periphrasis' comes from the Greek words 'peri' (which means
'round about') and 'phrasis' (which means 'to say'). A periphrastic construction
of a verb form is a 'round about way of saying something'. In Greek, normally
verb forms are made by inflection (the form of the
word changing to indicate the person, number,
tense, voice, and mood
of the verb). However, another way of forming some verb occurrences is by adding
a form of a linking verb (usually the verb 'to
be') to a nominative form of the verbal participle.